The founding of the Israeli state in 1948 followed the expulsion of around 750,000 Palestinians from the coastal region and the plains of Palestine towards the east, many of them crossing the borders to neighbouring Arab states. The UNRWA (United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East) supplied land for these refugees and finally ended their plight. Altogether, 61 refugee camps were set up. One of them is the Deheishe refugee camp, which was founded in 1949 on an area of roughly 430 dunums (about 1 square kilometre) within the city boundaries of Bethlehem in the West Bank.
The people who gathered in Deheishe originated from more than 45 villages west of Jerusalem and Hebron. Deheishe is one of the refugee camps that was created as a temporary humanitarian solution to the problem of accommodating those expelled Palestinian families. Perched together in tents the refugees suffered extreme conditions throughout the year. Towards the end of the 1950s the UNRWA started to build very simple living units: A single room of 10 square metres, 10 cm thick and 2.45 metres high walls, a steel roof and a floor made of rough concrete. The most distinct characteristics of these “buildings” were that it got bitterly cold during the winter season and unbearably hot during the summers. For these reasons, more and more refugees started to build their own houses so as not to live in the UNRWA-shacks any longer.